Dr. Elizabeth Catlos is an Associate Professor in the Dept. of Geological Sciences in the Jackson School of Geosciences at the University of Texas at Austin. She is a Fellow, a recipient of the Donath Medal (Young Scientist Award), and an elected Councilor of the Geological Society of America. As a Senior Lecturer for the U.S. Dept. of State's Fulbright Program, she taught introductory geosciences, mineralogy and petrography courses in the Dept. of Geological Engineering at Middle East Technical University in Ankara, Turkey. She served as a lead PI on a NSF-International Research Experiences for Students program in Turkey that provided American and Turkish students an opportunity to conduct hands-on field training in geophysical surveying, field mapping, GPS mapping, sampling, and provided them the tools necessary to make geochemical and petrologic observations. Her field areas are in Turkey, the Himalayas, south India, and Slovakia. Since 2010 she has been a Lead Instructor for GeoFORCE, a Jackson School of Geosciences' Education program that rewards outstanding students from select South Texas Independent School Districts and Houston schools from grades 8-12.

Areas of Expertise

The geological evolution of the Turkey (various regions), Himalayas (India and Nepal), south India (Tamil Nadu), and Slovakia (Carpathians); models for heat, mass, and fluid flow along tectonic structures; developing techniques for isotopic microanalysis; applying mineral equilibria to estimate environmental conditions during dynamic recrystallization; accessory mineral geochronology; stone decay and deformation mechanisms. Overall, I am interested in developing and applying petrochemical and geochemical techniques to the study of lithosphere dynamics.


Research Locations



Current Research Programs & Projects

Understanding migration of CO2-rich fluids in deformed carbonates within an active strike-slip fault zone

Documenting the Role and Presence of Fluids in Biga Peninsula Granites: Western Turkey

Relationships between very high pressure subduction complex assemblages and intrusive granitoids in central Anatolia

Deciphering the dynamics of the Simav Fault in western Turkey

U.S.-Turkey collaboration on the gabbro-dike transition of Turkish ophiolites

Deciphering the tectonomagmatic evolution of granites in the High Tatra Mountains (Slovakia)

Monazite from the Llallagua tin ore deposit in Bolivia

Geochemistry and geochronology of meta-igneous rocks from the Tokat Massif, north-central Turkey: Implications for Tethyan reconstructions

Linking microcracks and mineral zoning of detachment-exhumed granites (western) Turkey to their tectonomagmatic history

Evidence of polymetamorphic garnet growth within the Southern Menderes Massif, western Turkey

Short-term water saturation experiments on limestone tiles to evaluate degradation and alteration

Origin of Himalayan anatexis and inverted metamorphism

Windows into the lower to middle crust in the Southern Granulite Terrain, South India

Phengite-Based Chronology of K- and Ba-Rich Fluid Flow in Two Paleosubduction Zones

Use of tourmaline as an index mineral in the Himalaya


Notable Paper for Catlos (2013) "Generalizations about monazite: Implications for geochronologic studies" American Mineralogist - Mineralogical Society of America (2013)

Texas Exes Teaching Award - Texas Exes (2011)

Fulbright Lecturing Award - Fulbright (2008 - 2009)

Donald D. Harrington Fellowship - University of Texas at Austin (2007 - 2008)

Fellow of the Geological Society of America - Geological Society of America (2007)

Outstanding Reviewer - Geological Society of America Bulletin (2006)

Junior Faculty Award - Oklahoma State University (2006)

Young Scientist Award (Donath Medal) - Geological Society of America (2006)

Fellow - Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics (2000)

Predoctoral Fellowship - Smithsonian Institution (1997)

Predoctoral Fellowship - Smithsonian Institution (1997)

Summer Research Fellowship - NASA Specialized Center for Research and Training in Exobiology (1994)

Councilor/Conferee (Non-Voting), Diversity in the Geosciences Committee, Geological Society of America (2014 - 2017)

Councilor, Doris M.Curtis Memorial Fund for Women in Science Committee, Geological Society of America (2014 - 2016)

Liason, Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Petrology, Volcanology Division, Geological Society of America (2014)

Liason, Structural Geology and Tectonics Division, Geological Society of America (2013)

Councilor, Geological Society of America Council, Geological Society of America (2013)

Standing Review Board Member, Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer-Mass Spectrometer (MOMA-MS), Mars Program Office (MPO) Intake/Entrance Review, NASA (2013)

Leader, Workshop for Early Career Geoscience Faculty, On the Cutting Edge (2013)

Reviewer, Review of the Faculty Activities Report electronic system, UT Austin (2013)

Reviewer, Selection Committee for Faculty-Led Programs for Summer Abroad, UT Austin (2013)

Chair, South Central Section Management Board, Geological Society of America (2013)

Presenter, Event to promote STEM education/careers for girls through Earth Science education, GirlTalk (2013)

Member-at-Large, Young Scientist Award Committee-Donath Medal, Geological Society of America (2012 - 2015)

Vice Chair, South Central Section Management Board, Geological Society of America (2012 - 2013)

Co-Chair, GSA Annual Meeting Session 207 Advances in Mineralogy and Petrology, Geological Society of America (2012)

Undergraduate Advisor, Dept. Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences (2012)

Lead Science Instructor, 10th Grade Arizona GeoForce Field Trip, GeoForce (2012)

Reviewer, Committee to interview and mentor UT students applying for the Fulbright Study Abroad program, UT Austin (2012)

Undergraduate Advisor, Environmental Science program, Environmental Science Institute-Dept. Geol. Sciences (2012)

Lead Science Instructor, 10th Grade Arizona GeoForce Field Trip, GeoForce (2011)

Reviewer, Committee to interview and mentor UT students applying for the Fulbright Study Abroad program, UT Austin (2011)

Panel Member, Mars Science Laboratory Participating Scientist Review, NASA (2011)

Independent Review Team Member, Independent Review of the MOMA - Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometer (LDMS), NASA (2010)

Invited participant, Workshop Planning Activity to highlight best practices that integrate across multiple dimensions of university internationalization, particularly in science and engineering areas, NSF-Office of International Science and Engineering (2010)

Expert Witness, 93rd Judicial District, Hidalgo Country, Texas, Griffith and Garza, L.L.P. (2010)

Panel Member, Astrobiology Science & Technology for Exploring Planets, NASA (2010)

Lead Science Instructor, 10th Grade Arizona GeoForce Field Trip, GeoForce (2010)

Reviewer, Committee to interview and mentor UT students applying for the Fulbright Study Abroad program, UT Austin (2010)

Board Member, South Central Section Management Board, Geological Society of America (2009 - 2012)

Campus Representative, Campus Representative for the Fulbright Program for the University of Texas, Austin, Fulbright (2009)

Vice President, Austin Chapter of the Fulbright Alumni Association, Fulbright Alumni Association (2009)

Panel Member, Review of instruments Urey: Mars Organic and Oxidant Detector and Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA), NASA (2007)

Panel Member, Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program, NASA (2007)

Co-Chair, Fall AGU Meeting, Extensional Tectonics in the Basin and Range Province of North America and the Aegean Region of Eastern Europe and Western Anatolia Session, American Geophysical Union (2007)

Co-Chair, GSA Annual Meeting Session T53 Teaching Instrumentation to Geoscience Students: Course Design, Objectives, and Presentations, Geological Society of America (2006)

Co-Chair, Fall AGU Meeting, Post-Collisional Extension Session, American Geophysical Union (2006)

Lead Science Reviewer, Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program, NASA (2005)

Lead Science Reviewer, Mars Science Laboratory/Sample Analysis at Mars, NASA (2005)

Panel Member, Interdisciplinary Exploration Science Review, NASA (2005)

Co-Chair, Fall AGU Meeting, Extensional Tectonics and Metamorphic Core Complexes: Their Metamorphic, Petrographic, and Kinematic Evolution Session, American Geophysical Union (2005)

Co-Chair, GSA Annual Meeting Session T87 Recent Advances in Himalayan Geology, Geological Society of America (2004)

Panel Member, Mars Science Laboratory Panel, NASA (2004)

Panel Member, Mars Instrumentation and Development Panel, NASA (2003)

Panel Member, Tectonics Panel, National Science Foundation (2002)

Co-Chair, GSA Annual Meeting Session 6 Metamorphic Petrology I, Geological Society of America (2001)

Co-Chair, Fall AGU Meeting, Thermal Structure of Tibetan and Himalayan Lithosphere: Implications for Geodynamic Models of the India-Asia Collision Session, American Geophysical Union (1999)

I primarily focus on constraining the formation and evolution of metamorphic and intrusive igneous rocks in all tectonic regimes (compressional, extensional, and strike-slip). At the grain scale, I work to develop and understand how minerals and rock textures can be used to time paths followed by rocks due to tectonic processes. I apply information from the grain-scale to the regional-scale by developing models with geochemical constraints. My field areas include: Turkey (various regions including the Biga Peninsula, Menderes, Tokat, and Sivrihisar Massifs, and North Anatolia Fault), Himalayas (across India and Nepal), south India (Tamil Nadu), and Slovakia (Carpathians). My students typically conduct international field work and analyze rocks they collect in laboratories in the US. I am interested in mentoring students at all levels, including undergraduate, Masters and PhD. If you are a prospective student, please see this link for fellowships offered through UT Austin, and let me know if you happen to qualify: http://www.utexas.edu/ogs/funding/fellowships/


Graduate Students

Kate Atakturk, M.S., expected 2014 (Supervisor)
Understanding metamorphic core complexes in western Turkey through petrological, geochemical, and geochronologic work. Focus on metamorphic petrology and studying garnets to identify the pressure, temperature, and crystallization timing recorded by metamorphic rocks. Using data to construct structural interpretation of the region's formation.

Timothy A Shin, M.S., expected 2013 (Supervisor)
Expertise: Tectonics and Structural Geology, Thermo-/Geochronology, Petrology, and Geochemistry. I am interested in crustal and lithospheric dynamics and how they affect our environment and planet. I like to combine field-based geological, structural, and petrological observations with geo-/thermo- chonometric and geochemical analyses to elucidate the fundamental processes that drive the tectonics that have and continue to shape our world and resources. I am interested in a range of problems from extensional to contractional tectonics and their influence on geology and geochemistry. I am also deeply interested in the application of geological techniques to other bodies in the solar system. I currently am working on a field-based research project looking at how critical low-angle normal faulting in the Aegean back arc is to exhumation of high-pressure metamorphic rocks in a metamorphic core complex and the structural dynamics associated with Miocene extension in Greece. Focused on the islands of Andros and Tinos, this research is based on macro- and micro-structural analysis of brittle and ductile structures in metamorphic rocks and discovering the spatio-temporal evolution of those structures with geo-/thermo-chronological dating and geochemistry. I am using detrital zircon U-Pb dating on LA-ICP-MS, in situ U-Pb dating of zircon on SIMS, and zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He low-temperature thermochronology.

Karen Black, M.S., 2012 (Supervisor)
University of Texas at Austin
Karen Black completed her Master's Thesis in 2012 (Geochemical and Geochronological Relationships between Granitoid Plutons of the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey). She conducted fieldwork in Turkey in 2011 and used the UCLA ion microprobe to date zircon grains in situ in the rocks. To understand the meaning of the ages, she used cathodoluminescence equipment in the Bureau of Economic Geology and Dept. of Geological Sciences here in the Jackson School. The goal of the research was to obtain ages from the plutons, which are thought to record large-scale extension in the Biga Peninsula. The region is located in close proximity to the Aegean Sea. She published her finding to the journal Lithos. She is currently employed by Core Labs in Houston. The work was supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant No. 0937254) with additional funding provided by the Jackson School of Geosciences.

Kathryn Huber, 2011 (Supervisor)
University of Texas at Austin
Katie completed her Master's Thesis in 2011, titled "Geochemistry and geochronology of meta-igneous rocks from the Tokat Massif, north-central Turkey." She collected highly-altered meta-igneous rocks from a region in north-central Turkey that records the closure of two ancient oceans. The goal of the research was to directly date the samples to determine their sources and ages, and to develop a model for metamorphism and deformation in this region. She dated tiny zircon and baddeleyite grains using the UCLA ion microprobe. The results have been incorporated into a manuscript published in the International Journal of Earth Sciences. She is employed by Statoil. The work was supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant No. 0937254) with additional funding provided by the Jackson School of Geosciences.

Lauren Jacob, M.S., 2011 (Supervisor)
University of Texas at Austin
Lauren graduated with her Master's degree in 2011. Her thesis is titled: "Remote Sensing, Geochemistry, Geochronology, and Cathodoluminescence Imaging of the Egrigoz, Koyunoba, and Alacam Plutons, Northern Menderes Massif, Turkey." She conducted fieldwork in the northern Menderes Massif in western Turkey in 2010, and dated zircons in the rocks using the UCLA ion microprobe. She spent the rest of that summer imaging the samples using CL equipment in the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History. The goal of her project was to date these different granite bodies to determine their relationship to each other, to a major fault in the Northern Menderes Massif region, and their tectonic history. The work was published in 2012 in the American Journal of Science. The work was supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant No. 0937254) with additional funding provided by the Jackson School of Geosciences. Lauren is currently employed by Apache Corporation in Houston.

Courteney Baker, M.S., 2009 (Supervisor)
Oklahoma State University
Courteney was a student of mine when I was at Oklahoma State University and her thesis is titled: "Timing Extension in the Menderes Massif in Western Turkey Using Electron Microprobe, Ion Microprobe and Cathodoluminescence." She was also supervised by Dr. Anna Cruse. Her project involved dating monazite from two detachment-exhumed granites in western Turkey to determine the timing of extension in the region. She conducted fieldwork in Turkey and performed analytical work at here in the Jackson School and at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History. The work has been incorporated into papers published by Tectonophysics, Journal of Structural Geology, and Mineralogia. The work was supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant No. 0937254) with additional funding provided by Oklahoma State University, the Suzanne Takken Memorial Award, and the Jackson School of Geosciences. She is currently employed by Devon Energy.

Cenk Ozerdem, M.S., 2004 (Supervisor)
Oklahoma State University
Cenk was my graduate student when I was at Oklahoma State University. His thesis is titled: "Thermobarometric constraints on the Evolution of the Menderes Massif (western Turkey): Insights into the Metamorphic History of a Complexly-deformed Region." He generated peak pressures and temperatures from garnet-bearing rocks collected from a large-scale metamorphic core complex in western Turkey to understand the tectonic history of the region. His work has been incorporated into a paper in the journal Mineralogia and as part of a Special Paper published by the Geological of Society of America. We collaborated on a Lab Manual for the course Earth Materials taught here in the Jackson School (Kendall Hunt Publishers). He is currently employed by Astaldi SpA in Istanbul, Turkey.


Undergraduate Students

Current students:
Bridget Pettit. Bridget uses ArcGIS to map a major fault in northwestern Turkey. She works with Dr. Brent Elliott (Bureau of Economic Geology) to learn the GIS aspect of the project. She received an Undergraduate Research Award from UT Austin. She will present the results of her research at the 2014 GSA meeting in Vancouver, Canada. (Understanding the role of strike slip faulting as oceans close; https://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2014AM/webprogram/Paper247124.html)

Enrique Reyes. Enrique's project involves generating crystallization and cooling ages from granites in southwestern China. His samples are provided by Dr. Michael Brookfield (Univ. Mass., Boston). He received a Longhorn Scholarship for his work and will present the results of his research as a talk at the 2014 GSA meeting in Vancouver, Canada. He was awarded an "On the Future" GSA award to support his attendance at the meeting. He is employed by the dept. with Burke Funds and assists teaching assistants in GEO401 (Introductory Geology) and GEO416K (Earth Materials). (Dating the Menghai Batholith, southern China, https://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2014AM/webprogram/Paper246840.html)

Colin Sturrock HONORS Undergraduate Student. Project goal was to investigate short-term stone decay. Colin presented his research at the Geological Society of America Annual Meeting in Denver in 2013 as a talk. He received an Undergraduate Research Award from UT Austin and was the recipient of the 2013 American Institute of Professional Geologists Undergraduate Award. (Evidence for the dissolution of limestone tiles in the short term https://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2013AM/webprogram/Paper229381.html; HONORS Research: Ion microprobe stable isotope analyses of fracture-filling cement: implications for basin structural and pore fluid evolution in unconventional oil and gas reservoirs)

Past Students (UT Austin only):
Heather Flynn performed general laboratory assistance for graduate students; began a project on limestone decay. Graduated in Fall 2011.

Isis Garber (Common Pb in monazite https://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2013AM/webprogram/Paper230865.html). Supervised undergraduate research. Project goals was to investigate the source of Pb in monazite. Isis presented her research at the Geological Society of America Annual Meeting in Denver in 2013 as a poster.

Lindsey German (HONORS Research; Using ArcGIS to decipher the dynamics of the 2011 Simav Earthquake) Now at Texas A&M

Abby Kenigsberg. Abby's project involved investigating the chemistry of tourmaline from the Himalayas to understand its response during deformation. She received an Undergraduate Research Award from UT Austin and is now a graduate student at Penn State University.

Tyson McKinney worked on a project to develop a geochemical interpretation of basalts from western Turkey. He participated in a NSF-Research Experiences for Undergraduates program on the "Evolution of the Precambrian Rocks of Yellowstone National Park and Surrounding Areas--Summer 2011 Program." He was nominated by the department for the Houston Geological Society Outstanding Student Award. He graduated with his MSc from the Geosciences program at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

Tim Shin (HONORS Research; Shin et al., 2013, Relationships between very high pressure subduction complex assemblages and intrusive granitoids in the Tavsanli Zone, Sivrihisar Massif, central Anatolia. Tectonophysics, 595-596, 183-197)

Pamela Speciale (HONORS Research; Speciale et al., 2014, Zircon ages from the Beypazari granitoid pluton (north central Turkey): tectonic implications. Geodynamica Acta, DOI: 10.1080/09853111.2013.858955). Pamela won the Houston Geological Society Outstanding Student Award. Currently obtaining her PhD in the Jackson School.


Invited Seminar, Louisiana State University, Dept. Geological Sciences, (2013)

Invited Seminar, Undergraduate Geological Society, UT Austin, Dept. Geological Sciences, (2011)

Invited Seminar, Pennsylvania State University, Geosciences Department (departmental talk), (2010)

Invited Seminar, Pennsylvania NASA Space Grant Consortium (general talk to broader community), (2010)

Invited Seminar, University of Arkansas, Department of Geology, (2008)

Invited Seminar, Texas Earth Science Revolution program, Austin, TX (2008)

Invited Seminar, Yale University, Department of Geology and Geophysics, (2007)

Invited Seminar, University of Michigan, Department of Geological Sciences, (2007)

Invited Seminar, UT Austin Jackson School of Earth Sciences, (2007)

Invited Seminar, Virginia Tech., Blacksburg, Department of Geosciences, (2006)

Invited Seminar, San Francisco State University, Department of Geology, (2005)

Invited Seminar, University of Houston, Department of Geosciences, (2005)

Invited Seminar, University of Missouri-Columbia, Dept. of Geological Sciences, (2005)

Invited Seminar, Utah State University, Department of Geology, (2004)

Invited Seminar, University of Kansas, Department of Geology, (2004)

Invited Seminar, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Department of Geosciences, (2004)

Invited Seminar, UT Dallas, Department of Geosciences, (2004)

Invited Seminar, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Department of Geology Seminar Series, (2003)

Invited Seminar, UT Austin, Jackson School of Earth Sciences, (2003)

Invited Seminar, Arkansas-Oklahoma Center for Space and Planetary Sciences, (2002)

Invited Seminar, Oklahoma State University-Phillips Petroleum, Electron Microprobe Presentation, (2002)

Invited Seminar, Kansas State University, Department of Geology, (2002)

Invited Seminar, University of Kansas, Department of Geology, (2002)

Invited Seminar, University of Oklahoma, School of Geology and Geophysics, (2002)

Invited Seminar, University of California, Riverside, Dept. of Earth Science, (2001)

Invited Seminar, Florida State University; Dept. Geological Sciences; 2 talks, (2001)

Invited Seminar, Oklahoma State University; Boone Pickens School of Geology, (2001)

Geochronology of the Ordovician (Graduate or Undergraduate)
The Ordovician time scale is bracketed by major extinction events, including one that is the 2nd largest in Earth's history. The goal of this project is to date zircon grains collected from bentonite (clay-rich) samples from Ordovician exposures from a range of locations (Canada, US, Scandinavia) to further understand the late Ordovician Hirnantian Ice Age and the big end Ordovician extinction. The project would involve analysis of sedimentary and volcanic rocks, petrology, geochemistry, zircon geochronology, and tectonic interpretations. With Dr. Michael Brookfield (Univ. Mass Boston)

 

Nature, age, and emplacement of ophiolite complexes in NW India (Graduate or Undergraduate)
During the mid-Mesozoic to Eocene, the Indian subcontinent moved over 60 degrees latitude north towards Asia, closing the ancient Neo-Tethyan Ocean. This ocean plays a central role in reconstructing a number of orogenic systems extending from Europe to Asia, but debated issues remain because exposures of the former ocean and its sub-basins are affected by plate collision, arc and terrane accretion, and later deformation. The goal of this project is to date and geochemical analyze an isolated basic-ultrabasic massif that overlies shelf limestones of the northern Indian passive margin in NW India. The ophiolite body currently has no comprehensive published geochemical studies which would allow comparison with other complexes across the Himalayan range and its ages have large errors. The project involves geochronology of metamorphosed mafic igneous rocks, petrology, and tectonic interpretations. With Profs. M. Brookfield (Univ. Mass Boston) and G.M. Bhatt (Univ. Jammu).

 

Granitic rocks from the Biga Peninsula of western Turkey (Graduate or Undergraduate)
This project involves a field, geochemical and geochronological study of a number of granite plutons located in the Biga Peninsula of western Turkey. The objective is to decipher their tectonomagmatic histories to understand large-scale dynamics of extension in the back-arc of the northern Aegean. Back-arc basins are major components of numerous subduction zones around the world and deciphering the processes occurring in the Aegean back-arc region allows us to evaluate the role of the subducting slab, a prior tectonic history, strike-slip dynamics, and magma migration in the development of these key plate tectonic features. The Aegean is atypical of back-arc basins in general, and a number of processes complicate its geology, including the closure of branches of Tethyan oceans and strike-slip deformation. How the geology of the Biga Peninsula links to that of Greece and Bulgaria is also debated. Data generated in this project will be used to evaluate models for Aegean extension and to understand how the geology of the Biga Peninsula relates to that elsewhere in the region. Elements that are fundamental to models for Aegean extension are located in the field area, including Tethyan sutures, extensional structures, and active strands of the North Anatolian Shear Zone. With Dr. Tolga Oyman (Dokuz Eylul University)

 

International Research Experiences for Students (IRES): Closing Oceans: Assessing the Dynamics of Turkish suture zones (Graduate or Undergraduate)
I currently have a proposal in review with the National Science Foundation that requests funds to provide 4 weeks of geological field-based research and training experiences across Turkey for undergraduate and graduate students. They will conduct research within a multidisciplinary, regional framework focusing on investigating arc accretion processes that occurred in Turkey during the closure of branches of ancient ocean basins. Because of its Tethyan suture zones and fragments, Turkey is an ideal location to develop models for accretionary orogenesis and how continents grow. Students will partner with Turkish researchers to explore a multidisciplinary range of geological concepts discussed in their courses while making a significant impact on our understanding of processes related to the formation of continental crust. Students will visit field areas across Turkey to develop a regional-scale perspective. All IRES students will undego an intense pre- and post-departure program developed with the assistance of Turkish colleagues and numerous UT Austin resources. If funded, recruitment will begin in Fall 2015. The recruitment plan is geared towards attracting members of underrepresented groups and all IRES student participants will be US citizens or permanent residents, as required by the program solicitation. We target high-achieving graduate students and sophomore level undergraduates or internal transfers majoring in geology because others at higher levels will likely have time constraints on their summers due to degree-required field camp. Consideration will also be made for students attending other geoscience departments in Texas outside the Jackson School. With Drs. Rich Kyle and Brent Elliott (Jackson School); Tolga Oyman (Dokuz Eylul University, Dept. Geological Engineering), Bora Rojay (Middle East Technical University, METU Dept. of Geological Engineering) and Sebnem Duzgun (METU Dept. of Mining Engineering), and Aykut Akgun (Karadeniz Technical University, Dept. Geological Engineering).