# Publications

**RESEARCH: Pushing the limits of seismic resolution**

In the past decade, efforts have increased to search for hydrocarbons in difficult areas and in unconventional and fractured reservoirs. This search prompted acquisition of multi-azimuth and wide-azimuth datasets and development of processing algorithms using more complete physics of wave propagation. Currently the primary focus of EDGER is on advancement in quantitative seismic interpretation (QSI). This involves development of advanced techniques for high-resolution estimates of reservoir properties by integrating disparate datasets observed at multiple scales. The scope of research encompasses three major themes:

- Development of new techniques for seismic imaging and inversion
- Development of new rock physics models and adaptation of existing rock physics models to a particular field under investigation
- Integration of seismic inversion and rock physics models using novel statistical approaches and validation with field datasets.

Our imaging and inversion efforts include development of new theory and numerical algorithms for forward seismic modeling that are computationally efficient and accurate. These are used in full waveform imaging and inversion. Inversion for reservoir parameter estimation will be carried out using hybrid Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Effective medium models are being tested by computing the seismic responses of realistic rock models based on distributions of rock properties. We are developing new data integration techniques using geostatistical methods and Bayesian analysis.

**Please Note: This Page is updated regularly. **

## Relevant Publications (2016)

- Chatterjee, R., D. K. Singha, M. Ojha, M. K. Sen, and K. Sain, 2016, Porosity estimation from pre-stack seismic data in gas-hydrate bearing sediments, Krishna-Godavari basin, India: Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 33, 562–572.
- Datta, D., and M. K. Sen, 2016, Estimating a starting model for full-waveform inversion using a global optimization method: Geophysics, 81(4), R211–R223.
- De Basabe, J. D, M. K. Sen, and M. F. Wheeler, 2016, Elastic wave propagation in fractured media using the discontinuous Galerkin method: Geophysics 81 (4), T163–T174.
- Jiang, M., and K. T. Spikes, 2016, Rock-physics and seismic-inversion based reservoir characterization of the Haynesville Shale: Journal of Geophysics and Engineering 13 (3), 220–233.
- Kumar, D., S. Mondal, M. J. Nandan, P. Harini, BMVS Sekhar, and M. K. Sen, 2016, Two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and time-domain-induced polarization (TDIP) study in hard rock for groundwater investigation: a case study at Choutuppal Telangana, India: Arabian Journal of Geosciences 9 (5), 1–15.
- Ma, J., X. Chen, M. K. Sen, and Y. Xue, 2016, Free-surface multiple attenuation for blended data: Geophysics 81 (3), V227–V233.
- Naraghi, M. E., K. Spikes, and S. Srinivasan, 2016, 3-D Reconstruction of Porous Media From a 2-D Section and Comparisons of Transport and Elastic Properties: SPE Western Regional Meeting, SPE-180489.
- Ojha, M., M. K. Sen, and K. Sain, 2016, Use of split spread configuration of marine multichannel seismic data in full waveform inversion, Krishna-Godavari basin, India: Journal of Seismic Exploration 25 (4), 359–373.
- Pan B., M. K. Sen, and H. Gu, 2016, Joint inversion of PP and PS AVAZ data to estimate the fluid indicator in HTI medium: a case study in Western Sichuan Basin, China: Journal of Geophysics and Engineering 13(5), 690.
- Ren, Q., and K. T. Spikes, 2016, Modeling the effects of microscale fabric complexity on the anisotropy of the Eagle Ford Shale: Interpretation 4 (2), SE17–SE29.
- Ren, Q., M. Sen, M. E. Naraghi, S. Srinivasan, and K. T. Spikes, 2016, Geostatistics Guided Seismic Inversion of 3D seismic data in VTI media: 78th EAGE Conference and Exhibition.
- Spikes, K. T., 2016, Statistical Rock-Property Estimates from Inverted Impedances and Rock-Physics Modeling: Offshore Technology Conference, DOI: 10.4043/26882-MS.
- Wang, E., Y. Liu, and M. K. Sen, 2016, Effective finite-difference modelling methods with 2-D acoustic wave equation using a combination of cross and rhombus stencils: Geophysical Journal International, 206(3), 1933–1958.
- Zhao, Z., M.K. Sen, and P. L. Stoffa, 2016, Double-plane-wave reverse time migration in the frequency domain: Geophysics 81(5), S367–S382.
- Zhao, Z., and M. Sen, 2016, Double Plane Wave Least Squares Reverse Time Migration with Approximate Diagonal Hessian, 78th EAGE Conference and Exhibition.

## Relevant Publications (2015)

- Agarwal, M., J. Pulliam, M. K. Sen, H. Garrola, 2015, Lithospheric structure of Texas Gulf of Mexico passive margin from surface wave dispersion and migrated Ps receiver function, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 16(7), 2221-2239.
- Agarwal, M., J. Pulliam, M. K. Sen, U. Dutta, M. Pesyanos, and R. Mellors, 2015, Crustal and upper mantle structure in the Middle East: Assessing constraints provided by jointly modeling Ps and Sp receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves, Geophysical Journal International, 201(2), 783-810.
- Alulaiw, B. and M. K. Sen, 2015, AVA using spherical wave reflection coefficient: Application to Cana Field: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2015, 590–594. doi: 10.1190/segam2015-5831041.1.
- Alulaiw, B. and M. K. Sen, 2015, Prestack seismic inversion by quantum annealing: Application to Cana Field: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2015, 3507–3511. doi: 10.1190/segam2015-5831164.1.
- Barone, A., and M. K. Sen, 2015, Comparison of HTI and orthorhombic methods for determining fracture density and fracture azimuth from 3D seismic data: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2015, 2916-2920. doi: 10.1190/segam2015-5915240.1.
- Barone, A., and M. K. Sen, 2015, Estimation of fracture weaknesses and fluid indicator from 3D seismic data in HTI media: A case study in the Haynesville Shale: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2015, 2911-2915. doi: 10.1190/segam2015-5914732.1.
- Biswas, R., and M. K. Sen, 2015, Pre-stack trans-dimensional seismic inversion: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2015, 3492-3496. doi: 10.1190/segam2015-5831041.1.
- Carter, R. W., and K. T. Spikes, 2015, Double difference rock physics inversion for porosity and CO2 saturation at the Cranfield injection site: Interpretation,
**3**, 2, SM23–SM35, DOI: 10.1190/INT-2014-0123.1. - Datta, D. and M. K. Sen, 2015, Effect of density on acoustic full waveform inversion over hydrate bearing zone in offshore India: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2015, 1399–1403. doi: 10.1190/segam2015-5877912.1.
- DeBasabe, J. D., M. K. Sen, and J. F. Wheeler, 2015, Simulation of fracture interface waves using the discontinuous Galerkin method: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2015, 3639–3643. doi: 10.1190/segam2015-5821041.1.
- DeBasabe, J., and M. K. Sen, 2015, A comparison of monolithic methods for elastic wave propagation in media with a fluid-solid interface.Geophysical Journal International, Vol 200, pp. 278-298.
- Ghosh, R., M.K. Sen, N. Vedanti, 2015, Quantitative interpretation of CO2 plume from Sleipner (North Sea), using post-stack inversion and rock physics modeling, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 32, 147-158. doi: 10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.11.002.
- Patro, P. K., K. Aziz, Veeraswamy, S. Sarma, and M. K. Sen, 2015, Sub-basalt seismic imaging – the efficacy of magentotelluric method, Applied Geophysics, 121, 106-115.
- Rajesh, R., R. K. Tiwari, and M. K. Sen, 2015, De-noising of 3D seismic data using multichannel singular spectrum based time slice and horizon processing: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2015, 4708–4712. doi: 10.1190/segam2015-5843217.1.
- Ren, Q., and K. Spikes, 2015, Modeling the anisotropic elastic property of the Eagle Ford Shale with complex micro-scale fabric: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2015, 3042–3046. doi: 10.1190/segam2015-5849380.1.
- Sen, M. K. and R. Biswas, 2015, Choice of regularization weight in basis pursuit reflectivity inversion, J. Geophys. Eng. 12 70 doi:10.1088/1742-2132/12/1/70
- Sen, M. K., R. Biswas, P. Mandal, and P. Kumar, 2014, Basis pursuit receiver function: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 105, 6, 2673–2682. 10.1785/0120140004.
- Sen, M. K. , P. L. Stoffa, and R. Seif, 2015, Accurate 3D seismic wavefield simuation in anisotropic media: A massively parallel approach, EAGE Expanded abstracts.
- Vedanti, N, M. K. Sen, R. P. Srivastava, 2015, Integrated reservoir characterization for understanding in-situ combustion process in Balol oil field, India, Interpretation, 3(2), T69-T80.
- Vijayarao, D., N. Damodara, K. Sain, and M. K. Sen, 2015, Upper crust of the Archean Dharwar Craton in southern India as revealed by refraction tomography and its implications: Geophysical Journal International, 200, 1, 652–663. doi: 10.1093/gji/ggu425.
- Zhao, Z., M. K. Sen, and P. L .Stoffa, 2015, Double plane wave least squares reverse time migration: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2015, 4170–4174. doi: 10.1190/segam2015-5924229.1.
- Zhao, Z., M. K. Sen, and P. L .Stoffa, 2015, Plane wave reverse time migration in VTI media using Green’s function: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2015, 4002–4006. doi: 10.1190/segam2015-5926023.1.
- Zhao, Z., M. K. Sen, and P. L .Stoffa, 2015, Utilizing reciprocity principle for double plane wave dataset and imaging: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2015, 4153–4157. doi: 10.1190/segam2015-5926824.1.

## Relevant Publications (2014)

- Agarwal, M., J. Pulliam, M. K. Sen, U. Dutta, M. Pesyanos, and R. Mellors, 2014, Crustal and upper mantle structure in the Middle East: Assessing constraints provided by jointly modeling Ps and Sp receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves: Geophysical Journal International, 201, 783–810, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggv050.
- Barone, A., and M. K. Sen, 2015, Comparison of HTI and orthorhombic methods for determining fracture density and fracture azimuth from 3D seismic data: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2015, 2916-2920. doi: 10.1190/segam2015-5915240.1.
- Barone, A., and M. K. Sen, 2015, Estimation of fracture weaknesses and fluid indicator from 3D seismic data in HTI media: A case study in the Haynesville Shale: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2015, 2911-2915. doi: 10.1190/segam2015-5914732.1.
- Behera, L., and M. K. Sen, 2014, Tomographic imaging of sub-basalt sediments and shallow basement for hydrocarbon potential in Deccan volcanic province of India: Geophysical Journal International, 199, 1, 296-314. doi: 10.1093/gji/ggu261.
- Biswas, R., and M. K. Sen, 2014, Regularization weight estimation in basis pursuit inversion using a Bayesian framework: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2014, 3237-3241. doi: 10.1190/segam2014-0682.1
- Carter, R. W., and K. T. Spikes, 2014, Double difference rock-physics inversion for porosity and CO
_{2}saturation at the Cranfield injection site, Cranfield MS., SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2014, 4977-4981 doi: 10.1190/segam2014-0081.1 - Carter, R. W., K. T. Spikes, and T. Hess, 2014, Inversion of multicomponent 3D vertical seismic profile data for porosity and CO2 saturation at the Cranfield injection site, Cranfield, MS: Interpretation, 2, SE77–SE89, DOI: 10.1190/INT-2013-0147.1.
- Carter, R. W., and K. T. Spikes, 2014, Integrating Rock-physics Models and 3D VSP Data to Model Injected CO2 and Porosity at Cranfield Field, Mississippi, USA. Fourth EAGE CO2 Geological Storage Workshop Expanded Abstracts 2014, doi: 10.3997/2214-4609.20140098.
- Coyle, S., and K. T. Spikes, 2014, Rock-type model characterization of composition and fabric the Haynesville Shale: Expanded Abstracts of the 84
^{th}Annual Meeting of the SEG, 2840–2844, DOI: 10.1190/segam2014-1486.1. - DeBasabe, J. D., and M. K. Sen, 2014, A comparison of finite difference and spectral element methods for elastic wave propagation in media with a solid-fluid interface: Geophysical Journal International, 200, 278–298, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggu389.
- DeBasabe, J., and M. K. Sen, 2014, A comparison of monolithic methods for elastic wave propagation in media with a fluid-solid interface. SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2014, 3323-3328. doi: 10.1190/segam2014-0529.1.
- Dixit, M. K., S. Kumar, R. Catchings, K. Suman, D. Sarkar, and M. K. Sen, 2014, Seismicity, faulting and structure of the Koyna-Warna Seismic regions, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 119, 8, 6372-6398. DOI: 10.1002/2014JB010950.
- Ghosh, R, N. Vedanti, R. Biswas, and M. K. Sen, 2014, Rock physics modeling to monitor movement of CO2in Sleipner gas field, North Sea: An ideal CCS field. SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2014, 2803-2808. doi: 10.1190/segam2014-0970.1
- Gupta, M., K. T. Spikes, M. Far, D. Sava, and B. Hardage, 2014, Statistical AVO intercept-gradient analysis of direct S-waves: A methodology for quantitative fracture characterization: Expanded Abstracts of the 84
^{th}Annual Meeting of the SEG, 506–511, DOI: 10.1190/segam2014-0542.1. - Gustie, P. J., R. H. Tatham, and K. T. Spikes, 2014, Characterization of VTI media with P-SV AVO attributes: Expanded Abstracts of the 84
^{th}Annual Meeting of the SEG, 1975–1979, DOI: 10.1190/segam2014-1542.1. - Hess, T., T. Meckel, N. Bangs and R. H. Tatham, 2014, Case history of acquisition and processing of a high resolution shallow water 3D multi-cable seismic survey in the Gulf of Mexico transition zone. SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2014, 208-212. doi: 10.1190/segam2014-1508.1
- Jiang, M. and K. Spikes, 2014, Seismic reservoir characterization of unconventional gas shales: Expanded Abstracts of the 76
^{th}Annual Meeting of the EAGE, DOI: 10.3997/2214-4609.20141209. - Kumar, P., K. Talukdar and M.K. Sen, 2014, Lithospheric Structure below Transantarctic Mountain using Receiver Function Analysis of TAMSEIS Data, JOURNAL GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF INDIA, 83(5), 483-492.
- Kumar, P., M. K. Sen, and C. Halder, 2014, Estimation of shear velocity contrast from transmitted PS amplitude variation with ray-parameter, Geophysical Journal International, 198, 3, 1431-1437. doi: 10.1093/gji/ggu213.
- Liu, H., K. T. Spikes, and M. K. Sen, 2014, Application of discontinuous Galerkin method in seismic wave propagation: determining effect elastic properties based on rock microstructures: Expanded Abstracts of the 84
^{th}Annual Meeting of the SEG, 2888–2893, DOI: 10.1190/segam2014-0965.1. - Maleski, J. and R. H. Tatham, 2014, Direct shear wave polarization corrections across multiple offsets and anisotropic layers. SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2014, 1873-1877. doi: 10.1190/segam2014-0757.1
- Maleski, J. and R. H. Tatham, Rotation analysis of shear wave polarizations in the presence of depth-variant azimuthal anisotropy, 76th Annual Conference and Exhibition, EAGE, Amsterdam, doi:10.3997/2214-4609.20141614.
- Mandal, B., M. K. Sen, and V. VijayaRao, 2014, Deep seismic image enhancement by the common reflection stack (CRS) method: Delhi-Aravalli fold belt, Geophysical Journal International, doi:10.1093/gji/ggt402, 196(2),902-917.
- Morshed, S. M. and R. H. Tatham, 2014, Seismic sensitivity to variations of rock properties in the productive zone of the Marcellus Shale, WV. SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2014, 1950-1954. doi: 10.1190/segam2014-0123.1
- Moyano, B., T. A. Johansen, R. Agersborg, and K. T. Spikes, 2014, Diagnostics of seismic time lapse effects of sandstones based on laboratory data: Geophysics, 70, 5, D275– D287, DOI: 10.1190/GEO2013-0167.1.
- Murthy, A. S. N., D. Sarkar, M. K. Sen, V. Sridher, and A. Prasad, 2014, Mapping the sub-trappean Mesozoic sediments in the western part of Deccan volcanic province of India, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 93, 15–24.doi: 10.1016/j.jseaes.2014.06.019.
- Pandey, V., K. Sain, and M. K. Sen, 2014, Estimation of gas hydrate from velocity-resitivity transformed data in the Krishna-Godavari basin, eastern Indian margin, Journal of Geophysical Research, Submitted.
- Perumal, S. K., J. Kopisetti, K. Nagula, R. Menon and M. K. Sen, 2014, Impact fragmentation of Lonar Crater, India: Implications for impact cratering processes in Basalt, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, In Press.
- Prasad, A. S. S. R. S, K. Sain, and M. K. Sen, 2014, Imaging sub-basalt mesozoics along Jakhau-Mandvi and Mandvi-Mundra profiles in Kutch sedimentary basin from seismic and gravity modeling, Geohorizons, 51-56.
- Ren, Q., and K. T. Spikes, 2014, Anisotropic rock-physics modeling for the Haynesville Shale: Expanded Abstracts of the 84
^{th}Annual Meeting of the SEG, 2947–2951, DOI: 10.1190/segam2014-0357.1. - Ren, Q., and K. T. Spikes, 2014, Rock-classification guided rock physics modeling of the Eagle Ford Shale, in preparation.
- Sain, K, M. Rai and M. K. Sen, 2014, A review on shale gas prospect in Indian sedimentary basins, J. Ind. Geophys. Union, 18(2), 183-194.
- Saraswat, P., V. Raj, M. K. Sen, and A. Naryanan, 2014, Multiattribute Seismic Analysis With Fractal Dimension and 2D and 3D Continuous Wavelet Transform, SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, Vol 17, Issue 4, pp. 436-443
- Sen, M. K., R. Biswas, P. Mandal, and P. Kumar, 2014, Basis pursuit receiver function: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 105, 6, 2673–2682. 10.1785/0120140004.
- Singha, D. K., R. Chatterjee, M. K. Sen and K. Sain, 2014, Pore-pressure prediction in gas-hydrate bearing sediments of Krishna-Godavari basin, India: Marine Geology, 357, 1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2014.07.003.
- Spikes, K. T., 2014, Error estimates of elastic components in stress-dependent VTI media: Journal of Applied Geophysics, 108, 110–123, 10.1016/j.jappgeo.2014.06.015.
- Vedanti, N, M. K. Sen, R. P. Srivastava, 2014, Integrated reservoir characterization for understanding in-situ combustion process in Balol oil field, India: Geophysics, 74, 4, B103–B112. doi: 10.1190/1.3129262.
- Zhang, R, X. Song, S. Fomel, M. K. Sen, S. Srinivasan, 2014, Time‐lapse pre‐stack seismic data registration and inversion for CO2 sequestration study at Cranfield, Geophysical Prospecting, doi: 10.1111/1365-2478.12114
- Zhang, R., M. K. Sen and S. Srinivasan, 2014, Time-lapse pre-stack seismic inversion with thin bed resolution for monitoring CO2 sequestration from Cranfield, Mississippi: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 20, 223-229. doi: 10.1016/j.jggc.2013.10.032.
- Zhao, Z., M. K. Sen , and P. L. Stoffa, 2014, Double plane wave reverse time migration in the frequency domain: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2014, 1033-1039. doi: 10.1190/segam2014-1641.1.
- Zhao, Z., P. L. Stoffa, and M. K. Sen, 2014, Double plane wave reverse time migration in the time domain: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2014, 4032-4037. doi: 10.1190/segam2014-1604.1.

## Relevant Publications (2013)

- Alhussain, M. and M. K. Sen, 2013, Quantitative estimation of fracture parameter after removing anisotropic overburden effects, SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2013, 2443-2447. doi: 10.1190/segam2013-1068.1
- Behera, L. and M. K. Sen, 2013, Tomographic imaging of sub-basalt Mesozoic sediments and shallow basement configuration for hydrocarbon potential below the Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) of India. SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2013, 3174-3179. doi: 10.1190/segam2013-0206.1
- Campbell, T. & Tatham, R. H., 2013, Rotation of Shear-Wave components at Non-normal Angles of Incidence, (Tu-02-01) 75th EAGE Conference & Exhibition, London
- Carter, R. W., and K. T. Spikes, 2013, Sensitivity analysis of Tuscaloosa Sandstones to CO2 saturation, Cranfield Field, Cranfield, MS: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, doi: 10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.01.006
- Carter, R. and K. T. Spikes, 2013, Joint rock physics inversion of well log and 3D VSP data to model CO
_{2}saturation and porosity at Cranfield field, Cranfield, MS. SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2013, 2397-2401. doi: 10.1190/segam2013-0141.1 - Jiang, M. and K. T. Spikes, 2013, Characterizing the reservoir properties of the Haynesville Shale using rock-physics modeling and grid searching: Geophysical Journal International, 195, 315–239, DOI: 10.1093/gji/ggt250.
- Jiang, M. and Spikes, K., 2013, Correlation between rock properties and spatial variations in seismic attributes for unconventional gas shales—A case study on the Haynesville Shale. SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2013, 2274-2278. doi: 10.1190/segam2013-0187.1
- Kumar, P., M. Ravi Kumar, G. SriJayanthi, K. Arora, D. SriNagesh, R. K. Chadha, and M. K. Sen, 2013, Seismological evidence of flexure in the Indian continental tectonic plate, Journal of Geophysical Research, VOL. 118, 1–13, doi:10.1002/jgrb.50366.
- Liu, Y., and M. K. Sen, 2013, Time-space domain dispersion-relation-based finite-difference method with arbitrary even-order accuracy for the 2D acoustic wave equation, Journal of Computational Physics, 232(1), 327-345.
- Maleski, J. and R. H. Tatham, Rotation analysis of shear wave polarizations in the presence of depth-varian azimuthal anisotropy, 76th Annual Conference and Exhibition, EAGE, Amsterdam, accepted for presentation (Th-P07-12).
- Mandal, B., M. K. Sen, and V. VijayaRao, 2013, New seismic images of the central Indian suture zone and their tectonic interpretation, Tectonics, 32, doi:10.1002/tect.20055.
- Prasanna Lakshmi, K. J., P. Senthil Kumar, K. Vijaya Kumar, A. Ravinder. T. Seshunarayana, and M. K. Sen, 2013, Petrophysical stratigraphy of the Deccan basalts across the western ghats escarpment around Mahabaleswar and Koyna regions, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, September.
- Satyavani, N., M. K. Sen, M. Ojha, and K. Sain, 2013, Azimuthal anisotropy in OBS observations in Mahanadi offshore, India, Interpretation, 1(2), T187-T198.
- Satyavani, N., M. K. Sen, M. Ojha, and K. Sain, 2013, Azimuthal anisotropy from OBS data in Mahanadi offshore India: A case study. SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2013, 1674-1678.doi: 10.1190/segam2013-0111.1
- Sen, M. K., and L. N. Frazer, 2013, Multi-fold phase space path integral synthetic seismograms, Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) reprint volume on Seismic Diffraction: Modeling, Observation, and Imaging, edited by Michael Pelissier, Tijmen Jan Moser, Kamill Klem-Musatov, and Henning Hoeber.
- Sen, M. K., and P. L. Stoffa, 2013, Global Optimization Methods is Geophysical Inversion, Second Edition, Cambridge University Press, In Press.
- Spikes, K. T. and M. Jiang, 2013, Rock physics relationships between elastic and reservoir properties in the Haynesville Shale, in U. Hammes and J. Gale, eds., Geology of the Haynesville Gas Shale in East Texas and West Louisiana, U.S.A.: AAPG Memoir 105, 189–203, DOI:10.1306/13441850M1053603
- Tao, Y., and M. K. Sen, 2013, Seismic interferometry in plane wave domain, Geophysics, 78(4), Q35-Q44.
- Tao, Y., and M. K. Sen, 2013, Frequency domain full waveform inversion using scattering integral approach and its sensitivity analysis, Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, 10(6),065008.
- Tao, Y., and M. K. Sen, 2013, Frequency domain full waveform inversion with plane wave data, Geophysics, VOL. 78, NO. 1 (JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013); P. R13–R23.
- Tao, Y., and M. K. Sen, 2013, Suppressing non-Gaussian noises with scaled receiver wavefield for reverse-time migration: comparison of different approaches, Geophys. Prospecting, 61, 761-770, #2687
- Tao, Y., and M. K. Sen, 2013, On a plane-wave based cross correlation-type seismic interferometry, Geophysics, 78, Q35-Q44, #2686
- Tao, Y., and M. K. Sen, R. Zhang, and K. T. Spikes, 2013, A robust stochastic inversion workflow for time-lapse data: hybrid starting model and double difference inversion, Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, 10, doi:10.1088/1742-2132/10/3/035011
- Tao, Y., M. K. Sen, R. Zhang, and K. T. Spikes, 2013, A new stochastic inversion workflow for time-lapse data: hybrid starting model and double-difference inversion, Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, 10, 035011, 12pp. DOI: 10.1088/1742-2132/10/3/035011
- Xue, J., Sen, M.K.. & Tatham, R. H., 2013, Characterization of a saturated, fractured porous rock and estimation of its fracture-fluid factors. SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2013, 352-356. doi: 10.1190/segam2013-0785.1
- Xue, Y., L. Jin, and M. K. Sen, 2013, Application of principal component analysis to simultaneous seismic inversion, EAGE meeting.
- Zhang, R., M. K. Sen, and S. Srinivasan, 2013, Multi-trace basis pursuit inversion with spatial regularization, Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, 10, doi:10.1088/1742-2132/10/3/035012.
- Zhang, R., S. Song, S. Fomel, M. K. Sen and S. Srinivasan, 2013, Time-lapse seismic data registration and inversion for CO2 sequestration study at Cranfield, Geophysics, 78(6), B329-B338.
- Zhang, R., M. K. Sen, and S. Srinivasan, 2013, Pre-stack basis pursuit inversion, Geophysics, VOL. 78, NO. 1 (JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013); P. R1–R11.
- Zhang, R., R. Ghosh, M. K. Sen, and S. Srinivasan, 2013, Time-lapse surface seismic inversion with thin bed resolution for monitoring CO2 sequestration: A case study from Cranfield, Mississippi, Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control, 18, 430-438,#2688
- R. Zhang, X. Song, S. Fomel, S. Srinivasan, and , M. K. Sen, 2013, Time-lapse seismic data registration and inversion for CO2 sequestration study at Cranfield, 78(6), B329-B338. doi: 10.1190/geo2012-0386.1

## Relevant Publications (2012)

- Alhussain, M., and M. K. Sen, 2012, Removing anisotropic overburden effect for reliable reservoir fracture characterization, 82nd Annual International Meeting, SEG, Expanded Abstracts, 1-5.
- AlMuhaidib, Abdulaziz, M. K. Sen, and M. Nafi Toksoz, 2012, Integration of geology, rock physics, logs and pre-stack seismic for reservoir porosity estimation, AAPG Bulletin, 96, 1235-1251
- Campbell, T. & Tatham, R. H., 2012, Corrections for polarization distortion in reflected shear waves and possible extensions to the Alford rotation at non-normal incidence angles and applications, Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 31, 82nd Annual International Meeting, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 31, MS E-P1-1.8
- Carter, R. and K. T. Spikes, 2012, Modeling fluid composition in CO2-saturated sandstone using a statistical rock physics approach, Cranfield Field, Cranfield, MS, Abstract MR33A-2429 presented at 2012 Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, Calif., 3-7 Dec.
- Fomel, S. and L. Ying, X.Song, 2012, Seismic wave extrapolation using low rank symbol approximation, Geophysical Prospecting , April 2012
- Ghosh, R., and M. K. Sen, 2012 Predicting subsurface CO2 movement: from laboratory to field scale, Geophysics,77(3), M27–M37
- Jiang, M. and K. T. Spikes, 2013, Characterizing the reservoir properties of the Haynesville Shale using rock-physics modeling and grid searching: Geophysical Journal International, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggt250.
- Jiang, M. and K. T. Spikes, 2012, Estimation of the porosity an pore aspect ratio of the Haynesville Shale using the self-consistent model and a grid search method, Expanded Abstracts of the 82nd Annual Meeting of the SEG, 31, http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/segam2012-0134.1
- Kongrath, S., R. H. Tatham, & K. T. Spikes, 2012, Comparison of Fluid Prediction Success between AVO and Bright Spot Techniques in the Marco Polo Field, The Gulf of Mexico, International Petroleum Technology Conference, Bangkok, Feb. 2012. IPTC 14573
- Liu, T., M. K. Sen, T. Hu, and J. D. DeBasabe, 2012, Dispersion analysis of the spectral element method using a triangular mesh, Wave Motion, Wave Motion, Volume 49, Issue 4, June 2012, Pages 474-483
- Liu, Y. and M. K. Sen, 2012, Time-space domain dispersion relation based finite-difference method with arbitrary even-order accuracy for the 2D acoustic wave equation, Journal of Computational Physics, http://dx.doi.org/j.jcp.2012.08.025.
- Liu, Yang and M. K. Sen, 2012, A hybrid absorbing boundary condition for elastic staggered grid modeling, Geophysical Prospecting, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2478.2011.01051.x.
- Martinsen, O. J., M. Talwani, C. Dengo, B. Barkhouse, J.F. Dunn, A. Levander, C. Link, S. Mosher, J. Orcutt, D. Paul, R. Talley, R. H. Tatham, 2012, A U.S. human resource challenge for Earth science education and energy exploration and exploitation, The Leading Edge, v31, no6, June 2012
- Moyano, B., K. T. Spikes, T. A. Johansen, N. H. Mondol, 2012, Modeling compaction effects on the elastic properties of clay-water composites: Geophysics, 77, 5, 1–13, DOI: 10.1190/GEO2011-0426.1
- Oh, K. T. and K. T. Spikes, 2012, Velocity modeling to determine pore aspect ratios of the Haynesville Shale, Expanded Abstracts of the 82nd Annual Meeting of the SEG, 31, http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/segam2012-0508.1
- Saraswat, P. and M. K. Sen, 2012, Artifical neural systems based self organizing maps for seismic facies analysis, Geophysics July 2012 v. 77 no. 4 p. O45-O53
- Saraswat, P. and M. K. Sen, 2012, Pre-stack inversion of angle gathers using hybrid evolutionary algorithm, Journal of Seismic Exploration, Vol 21, No. 2, May 2012
- Shahin, A. and K. Kerry, P. L. Stoffa, R. H. Tatham, 2012, Petro-electric modeling for CSEM reservoir characterization and monitoring, Geophysics, January 2012, v. 77, p. E9-E20, doi:10.1190/geo2010-0329.1
- Shahin, A., P. L. Stoffa, R. H. Tatham, R. K. Seif, 2012, Time-lapse seismic modelling: Accuracy required to detect signals from a water flooded reservoir, J. Seismic Explor., 21, 49-82, 2012
- Spikes, K. T., 2012, Overview of rock property relationships and characterization methods for selected oil and gas shales in North America: Geohorizons, January Issue
- Stewart, R., K. T. Spikes, J. Sisson, S. Hall, J. Huang, and S. Danbom, 2012, Outstanding in the field: Hands-on geophysical education: The Leading Edge, 31, 3, 278–284
- Tao, Y., and M. K. Sen, 2012, Subtracting non-Gaussian noise in reverse time migration, Geophysical Prospecting, In Press.
- Tao, L., T. Hu, M. K. Sen, J. Yang, R. Wang, J. Wei, 2012. A hybrid scheme for seismic modeling based on Galerkin method, Geophysical Journal International, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05094.x
- Tatham, R. H. and A. M. Perez, 2012, Azimuthal effects of structural dip and CMP bin size on reflection travel times, EAGE 74th Annual Conference and Exhibition, Copenhagen (X032)
- Tatham, R. H. and P. M. Krail, 2012, Physical Insight into the Elastic Brewster’s Angle, EAGE 74th Annual Conference and Exhibition, Copenhagen (CO17)
- Tatham, R. H. and P. M. Krail, 2012, Zero crossings, the elastic Brewster’s angle and physical insight into shear-wave reflections, Vol. 31, 82nd Annual International Meeting, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 31, MS E-P1.7,
- Tatham, R. H., 2012, Invited paper-Seismic Applications in the Exploration for and Development and Production of Unconventional Hydrocarbon Resources (An overview), Geohorizons, 17, 1 5-17.
- Zhang, R., M. K. Sen, S.Phan, and S. Srinivasan, 2012, Stochastic and deterministic seismic inversion methods for thin-bed resolution, Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, October 2012, v. 9, p. 611-618, doi:10.1088/1742-2132/9/5/61

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## Relevant Publications (2011)

- Alhussain, M., K. T. Spikes and M. K. Sen, 2011, Sensitivity study of a fractured carbonate oil reservoir in Saudi Arabia,Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 30, SEG 81st Annual International Meeting, San Antonio, TX, 1799–1803.
- AlMuhaidib, A., M. K. Sen and M. Nafi Toksoz, 2011, Integration of geology, rock physics, logs and pre-stack seismic for reservoir porosity estimation, AAPG Bulletin July 2012 vol. 96 no. 7 1235-1251
- Burnett, W. A. and S. B. Fomel, 2011, Azimuthally Anisotropic 3D Velocity Continuation, International Journal of Geophysics, Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 484653, doi:10.1155/2011/484653
- Burnett, W. A. and S. B. Fomel, 2011, Diffraction Imaging using 3D Azimuthally-anisotropic velocity continuation, Expanded Abstracts of the 73rd Annual Meeting of the EAGE
- Campbell, T. and R. H. Tatham, 2011, Correction for distortion in polarization of reflected shear-waves in isotropic and anisotropic media, Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 30, SEG 81st Annual International Meeting, San Antonio, TX, 1333-1337.
- DeBasabe, J., M. K. Sen and M. F. Wheeler, 2011, Seismic wave propagation in fractured media: a discontinuous Galerkin approach,Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 30, SEG 81st Annual International Meeting, San Antonio, TX, 2920-2924.
- Deng, Z., M. K. Sen, U. Wang, X. Bai, and Y. Xue, 2011, Pre-stack PP and PS joint inversion in the same PP time scale, Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 30, SEG 81st Annual International Meeting, San Antonio, TX, 1303-1307.
- Fomel, S. and L. Ying, X.Song, 2011, Seismic wave extrapolation using low rank symbol approximation, Geophysics, Vol 76, No 5, (Sept-Oct 2011); p. T123-T129
- Ghosh, R. and M. K. Sen, 2011, Effective medium modeling of fluid-filled fractured-porous medium, Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 30, SEG 81st Annual International Meeting, San Antonio, TX, 2171-2176.
- Ghosh, R., and M. K. Sen, 2011, A frequency-dependent fractured poro-elastic effective medium modeling, First international workshop in Rock Physics, Denver, Colorado, USA.
- Jiang, M. and K. T. Spikes, 2011, Pore-shape and composition effects on rock-physics modeling in the Haynesville Shale, Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 30, SEG 81st Annual International Meeting, San Antonio, TX, 2079–2083.
- Joy, C, T. Vanorio and M. K. Sen, 2011, A rock physics experiment to differentiate pressure effects and chemical effects on the elastic properties of lower Tuscaloosa sandstone in Cranfield, Mississippi, Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 30, SEG 81st Annual International Meeting, San Antonio, TX, 2119-2123.
- Liu, Y. and M. K. Sen, 2011, 3D acoustic wave equation modeling with time-space domain dispersion-relation based staggered-grid finite-difference schemes and hybrid absorbing boundary conditions, Exploration Geophysics, Volume 42 Number 3 2011
- Liu, Y. and M. K. Sen, 2011, A hybrid absorbing boundary condition for elastic staggered grid modeling, Geophysical Prospecting, Volume 60, Issue 6, pages 1114–1132, November 2012
- Liu, Y. and M. K. Sen, 2011, Finite difference modeling with variable length spatial operators and time steps, SEG annual meeting,Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 30, SEG 81st Annual International Meeting, San Antonio, TX, 2834-2838.
- Liu, Y. and M. K. Sen, 2011, Finite-difference modeling with adaptive variable length spatial operators, Geophysics,76(4), T79-T89. [One of the 20 research articles with the most full-text downloads in September 2011 – rank 19]
- Liu, Y. and M. K. Sen, 2011, Scalar wave equation modeling with time-space domain dispersion-relation based staggered-grid finite-difference schemes, Bulletin of the Seismological society of America, 101(1), 141-159.
- Liu, Y. and M. K. Sen, 2011, Time-space domain finite-difference method with arbitrary even-order accuracy for the 2D acoustic wave equation, June, EAGE Vienna.
- Liu, Y., L. Ding and M. K. Sen, Comparisons between the hybrid ABC and the PML method for 2D high-order finite-difference acoustic modeling, Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 30, SEG 81st Annual International Meeting, San Antonio, TX, 2952-2956.
- Phan, S and M. K. Sen, 2011, Stochastic inversion for pre-injection reservoir characterization at Dickman field, Quebec city, Canada.
- Phan, S. and M. K. Sen, 2011, Reservoir evaluation for CO2 sequestration at Dickman Field, Kansas, Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 30, SEG 81st Annual International Meeting, San Antonio, TX, 1918-1922.
- Saraswat, P. and M. K. Sen, 2011, Artificial immune based self organizing maps for seismic facies analysis, Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 30, SEG 81st Annual International Meeting, San Antonio, TX, 1739-1743.
- Saraswat, P., V. Raj, A. Narayanan and M. K. Sen, 2011, Multi-attribute seismic analysis using fractal dimension and 2D and 3D continuous wavelet transform, Geophysics, submitted.
- Sen, M. K. and P. L. Stoffa, 2011, Inverse Theory: global optimization, invited contribution, Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, vol I, 625-632. Springer, The Netherlands.
- Sen, M. K., 2011, Seismic, Reflectivity Method, invited contribution, Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, vol II, 12691279, Springer, The Netherlands
- Sen, M. K., 2011, Some practical aspects of full waveform modeling, invited paper, SEG summer research workshop, Quebec city, Canada.
- Shahin, A., P. L. Stoffa, R. H. Tatham, D. Sava, 2011, Multi-component time-lapse seismic: on saturation-pressure discrimination and statistical detectability of fluid flow, Journal of Seismic Exploration, V. 20, n. 4, p. 357-378.
- Shahin, A., P. L. Stoffa, R. H. Tatham, R. Seif, 2011, Accuracy required in seismic modeling to detect production-induced time-lapse signatures, Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 30, SEG 81st Annual International Meeting, San Antonio, TX, 2860-2864.
- Shahin, A., R. H. Tatham, P. L. Stoffa, and K. T. Spikes, Optimal dynamic rock-fluid physics template validated by petroelastic reservoir modeling, Geophysics November 2011 v. 76 no. 6 p. O45-O58
- Sil, S., M. K. Sen, and B. Gurevich, 2011, Sensitivity analysis of fluid substitution in a porous and fractured medium, 76(3), WA157-166.
- Song, X. and S. Fomel 2011, Fourier finite-difference wave propagation, Geophysics, September 2011, v. 76, p. T123-T129, doi:10.1190/geo2010-0287.1
- Spikes, K. T., 2011, Modeling elastic properties and assessing uncertainty of fracture parameters in the Middle Bakken Siltstone: Geophysics, 76, 4, E117–E126, DOI: 10.1190/1.3581129.
- Spikes, K. T., 2011, Modeling fracture parameters in the Middle Bakken Siltstone: Expanded Abstracts of the 73rd Annual Meeting of the EAGE
- Tao, L., T. Hu, M. K. Sen, J. Yang, R. Wang and J. Wei, 2011. A hybrid scheme for seismic modeling based on Galerkin method, Geophysical Journal International, doi10.1111/j.1365–246X.2011.05094.x
- Tao, Y., and M. K. Sen, 2011, Seismic inversion for splay fault interpretation in Nankai Trough, Japan, Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, 9,1-11
- Tao, Y., K. T. Spikes, and M. K. Sen, 2011, Stochastic seismic inversion using both low and high frequency fractal priors ,Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 30, SEG 81st Annual International Meeting, San Antonio, TX, 2732-2736.
- Xue, Y. and M. K. Sen, 2011, A new MCMC method for pre-stack seismic inversion, Quebec city, Canada.
- Xue. Y., M. K. Sen, and D. Zhiwen, 2011, A new stochastic inference method for inversion of pre-stack data , Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 30, SEG 81st Annual International Meeting, San Antonio, TX, 2757-2761.
- Zhang, R., M. K. Sen and S. Srinivasan, 2011, CO2 pre-injected reservoir characterization in Cranfield using basis pursuit inversion,Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 30, SEG 81st Annual International Meeting, San Antonio, TX, 2619-2623.

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## Relevant Publications (2010)

- Bansal, R. and M. K. Sen, 2010, Ray-Born inversion for anisotropy parameters, Geophysical Journal International, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2009.04484.x.
- Chu, C. and P. L. Stoffa, 2010, Acoustic anisotropic wave modeling using normalized Pseudo-Laplacian, Expanded Abstracts, Volume 29, SEG 80th Annual International Meeting, Denver, CO, SM2.5, pp. 2972-2976.
- Chu, C. and P. L. Stoffa, 2010, Elastic Wave Modeling with the Pseudo-analytical Method on Staggered Grid, Expanded Abstracts, 2010, Volume 29, SEG 80th Annual International Meeting, Denver, CO
- Chu, C., P.L. Stoffa and ConocoPhillips, 2010, Frequency domain modeling using implicit spatial finite difference operators, Expanded Abstracts, Volume 29, SEG 80th Annual International Meeting, Denver, CO, SM P2.1, pp. 3076-3080
- Deng, Z. and U. Wang, M. K. Sen, K. Li, X. Bai, X. Zou and S. Cui, 2010, A practical approach to mode-converted shear wave velocity analysis from 3C data, Expanded Abstracts, Volume 29, SEG 80th Annual International Meeting, Denver, CO, MC P1.6, pp. 1724-1728.
- Jackson, C. S., M. K. Sen, P. L. Stoffa, and G. Huerta, 2010, Data directed importance sampling for climate model uncertainty estimation, in advanced computational infrastructures for parallel / distributed adaptive applications, edited by M. Parashar, X. Li, and S. Chandra, editors, Wiley Publishers, 2010
- Kao, J. C. and R. H. Tatham, P.E. Murray, 2010, Estimating pore pressure using compressional and shear wave data from multicomponent seismic nodes in Atlantis Field, deep-water Gulf of Mexico, Expanded Abstracts, Volume 29, SEG 80th Annual International Meeting, Denver, CO, MC 1.6, pp. 1641-1645.
- Li, X, M. Parashar and S. Chandra, Eds., Advanced Computational Infrastructures for Parallel/Distributed Adaptive Applications, Wiley Publishers 2010
- Liu, Y. and M. K. Sen, 2010, A hybrid absorbing boundary condition for elastic wave modeling with staggered-grid finite difference, Expanded Abstracts, Volume 29, SEG 80th Annual International Meeting, Denver, CO, SM 1.8, pp. 2945-2949.
- Liu, Y. and M. K. Sen, 2010, A hybrid scheme for absorbing edge reflections in numerical modeling of wave propagation, Geophysics, 75(2), P A1-A6, [One of the 20 research articles with the most full-text downloads in March 2010 – rank 3] • [One of the 20 research articles with the most full-text downloads in April 2010 – rank 1] • [One of the 20 research articles with the most full-text downloads in May 2010 – rank 5]
- Liu, Y. and M. K. Sen, 2010, Acoustic VTI modeling with a time-space domain dispersion-relation-based finite-difference-based scheme, Geophysics, 75(3), A11-A17, [One of the 20 research articles with the most full-text downloads in May 2010 – rank 16]
- Liu, Y. and M. K. Sen, 2010, Finite-difference modeling with adaptive variable length spatial operators, Expanded Abstracts, Volume 29, SEG 80th Annual International Meeting, Denver, CO, SM 1.5, pp. 2930-2934.
- Liu, Y., and M. K. Sen, 2010, 3D acoustic wave modeling with a time-space domain dispersionrelation based finite-difference Scheme, Expanded Abstract, SPG bi-annual meeting, Hyderabad, India.
- Ma, J and M. K. Sen, X. Chen and Y. Liu, 2010, OBC Multiple Attenuation Technique using SRME Theory, Volume 29, SEG 80th Annual International Meeting, Denver, CO, SPMUL 2.7, pp. 3473-3477.
- Pecher, I. A., B. Milkerit, A. Sakai, M. K. Sen, N. L. Bangs and J. Huang, 2010, Vertical Seismic Profiles through Gas-Hydrate-Bearing Sediments. Geophysical Characterization of Gas Hydrates, 121-142, print ISBN: 978-1-56080-218-1
- Pestana, R. C. and P. L. Stoffa Phase-shift plus interpolation time-stepping method for reverse time migration, Expanded Abstracts, 2010, Volume 29, SEG 80th Annual International Meeting, Denver, CO
- Phan, Son and M. K. Sen, 2010, Porosity estimation from seismic data at Dickman Field, Kansas for carbon sequestration, Expanded Abstracts, Volume 29, SEG 80th Annual International Meeting, Denver, CO, RC 2.3, pp. 2299-2303.
- Porsani, M. J., P. L. Stoffa, M. K. Sen, R. J. Seif, 2010, Partitioned least squares operator for large scale geophysical inversion Geophysics, Volume 75, Issue 6 (Nov-Dec 2010).
- Saraswat, P and M. K. Sen, 2010, Simultaneous stochastic inversion of prestack seismic data using Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm, Expanded Abstracts, Volume 29, SEG 80th Annual International Meeting, Denver, CO, SI P1.5, pp. 2850-2854.
- Saraswat, P., Srivastava , R. P. and M. K. Sen, 2010, Particle Swarm and Differential Evolution: Optimization for stochastic inversion of post-stack seismic data, Expanded Abstract, SPG biannual meeting, Hyderabad, India.
- Sen, M. K., P. S. Routh, and R. P. Srivastava, 2010, Use of priors and hyper-priors in stochastic inversion for reservoir parameters, Expanded Abstract, SPG bi-annual meeting, Hyderabad, India.
- Shahin, A and P. L. Stoffa, R. H. Tatham 2010, Timelapse CSEM analysis of a shaly sandstone simulated by comprehensive petro-electric modeling, Expanded Abstracts, 2010, Volume 29, SEG 80th Annual International Meeting, Denver, CO
- Shahin, A and R. H. Tatham, P. L. Stoffa, K. T. Spikes, 2010, Comprehensive petro-elastic modeling aimed at quantitative seismic reservoir characterization and monitoring, Expanded Abstracts, Volume 29, SEG 80th Annual International Meeting, Denver, CO, RC P1.8, pp. 2245-2250.
- Shahin, A. and K. Kerry, P. L. Stoffa, P. L., R. H. Tatham, 2010, Time-lapse CSEM analysis of a shaly sandstone simulated by comprehensive petro-electric modeling, Expanded Abstracts, Volume 29, SEG 80th Annual International Meeting, Denver, CO, EM P4.3, pp. 889-894.
- Shan, N. and R. H. Tatham, M. K. Sen, K. T. Spikes and S. C. Ruppel, 2010, Sensitivity of seismic response to variations in the Woodford Shale, Expanded Abstracts Volume 29, SEG 80th Annual International Meeting, Denver, CO, RP P2.4, pp. 2725-2729.
- Sil, S. and M. K. Sen, B. Gurevich, 2010, Sensitivity analysis of fluid substitution in a porous medium with aligned fractures, Expanded Abstracts, Volume 29, SEG 80th Annual International Meeting, Denver, CO, ANI 1.6, pp. 202-206.
- Sil, S. and R. P. Srivastava, M. K. Sen 2010, Observation of anisotropy in the multi-component node data from Atlantis field, Gulf of Mexico, Geophysical Prospecting, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2478.2010.00871.x
- Spikes, K. T., 2010, Modeling pore-stiffness effects in the Middle Bakken Siltstone, Expanded Abstracts, Volume 29, SEG 80th Annual International Meeting, Denver, CO, RP1.5, pp. 2431-2435.
- Srinivasan, S. and M. K. Sen, 2010, Mapping of digenesis in a carbonate reservoir in the Gulf of Mexico by a stochastic data integration technique, Expanded Abstracts, Volume 29, SEG 80th Annual International Meeting, Denver, CO, RC3.7, pp. 2361-2365.
- Srivastava, R. P. and M. K. Sen, 2010, Stochastic pre-stack seismic inversion using fractal based priors, Geophysics, 75(3), pp. R47-R59. [One of the 20 research articles with the most full-text downloads in May – rank 3]
- Tao, Yi and M. K. Sen, N. Bangs, T. Hess, 2010, Seismic inversion for splay fault interpretation in the Nankai Trough accretionary wedge, Japan, Expanded Abstracts, Volume 29, SEG 80th Annual International Meeting, Denver, CO, INT 3.1, pp. 1500-1505.
- Valentin, D. A. and R. H. Tatham, 2010, Identifying Jurassic tight gas sands in the East Texas Basin with 3D-3C seismic data, Expanded Abstracts, Volume 29, SEG 80th Annual International Meeting, Denver, CO, MC1.2, pp. 1620-1624.
- Ye, F. and R. H. Tatham, M. K. Sen, Anticipated seismic responses of the Bakken Formation, East Williston Basin, North Dakota, Expanded Abstracts, 2010, Volume 29, SEG 80th Annual International Meeting, Denver, CO, ANI P1-5, pp. 343-347.

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## Relevant Publications (2009)

- Chu, C., P.L. Stoffa and R. Seif, 2009, 3D elastic wave modeling using modified high-order time stepping schemes with improved stability conditions, Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 28, SEG 79th Annual International Meeting, Houston, TX.
- Chu, C., P.L. Stoffa and R. Seif, 2009, 3D seismic modeling and reverse-time migration with the parallel Fourier method using non-blocking collective communications, Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 28, SEG 79th Annual International Meeting, Houston, TX.
- Chu, C., P.L. Stoffa and R. Seif, 2009, High-order rotated staggered finite difference modeling of 3D elastic wave propagation in general anisotropic media, Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 28, SEG 79th Annual International Meeting, Houston, TX.
- DeBabsabe, J. and and M. K. Sen 2009, New developments in finite element methods of seismic wave propagation simulation, invited paper, special section on seismic modeling, The Leading Edge, invited paper, special section on seismic modeling, 28(5), 562-567., [One of the 10 research articles with the most full-text downloads during the month of May 2009]
- DeBabsabe, J. and M. K. Sen, 2009, Comments on a paper “Dispersion analysis of spectral element method for elastic wave propagation,” G. Seriani and S. P. Oliveira, Wave Motion, 46, 92-93.
- DeBabsabe, J., and M. K. Sen, 2009, New developments in finite element methods of seismic wave propagation simulation, invited paper, special section on seismic modeling, The Leading Edge, invited paper, special section on seismic modeling, 28(5), 562-567.
- DeBasabe, J., and M. K. Sen, 2009, Continuous and discontinuous finite element methods for elastic wave propagation, SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2009: 2542-2546, SEG Annual Meeting, Houston, TX.
- Dutta, U., M. K. Sen, N. N. Biswas, and Y. Zang, 2009, Investigation of shallow sedimentary structure of the anchorage basin, Alaska, using simulated annealing inversion of site response data, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 99(1), 326-339
- Hong, T. and M. K. Sen, 2009, A new MCMC algorithm for seismic waveform inversion and corresponding uncertainty analysis, Geophysical Journal International, doi: 10.1111/j.1365!246X.!2008.04052.x.
- Jin, L., M. K. Sen, and P. L. Stoffa, 2009, Fusion based classification method and its application, Journal of Seismic Exploration, 18(2), 103-117.
- Jin, L., M. K. Sen, P.L. Stoffa, R.K. Seif, A. Sena, 2009, Pilot point parameterization in stochastic inversion for reservoir properties using time-lapse seismic and production data, J. Seismic Exploration, Volume 18, Number 1, January 2009
- Jin, L., P.L. Stoffa, M. K. Sen, 2009, Stochastic inversion for reservoir properties using parallel learning-based VFSA and pilot point parameterization, SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, Woodlands, Tx.
- Liu, Y. and M. K. Sen, 2009, 2D acoustic wave equation modeling with a new high-accuracy timespace domain finite-difference stencil, Expanded Abstract, EAGE meeting, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
- Liu, Y. and M. K. Sen, 2009, A new time-space domain finite-difference method for acoustic wave propagation, Journal of Computational Physics, 228, 8779-8806., One of the most downloaded papers from Oct to Dec 2009 (rank 7, ScienceDirect TOP25 Hottest Articles of JCP)
- Liu, Y. and M. K. Sen, 2009, A practical implicit finite difference method: example from seismic modeling, Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, 6, 231-249
- Liu, Y. and M. K. Sen, 2009, Acoustic VTI modeling by a new time-space domain high-order finite difference method, Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 28, SEG 79th Annual Meeting, Houston, TX.
- Liu, Y. and M. K. Sen, 2009, Advanced finite-difference methods for seismic modeling, Geohorizons, 14 (2), 5-15
- Liu, Y. and M. K. Sen, 2009, An implicit staggeredgrid finite-difference method for seismic modeling, Geophysical Journal International, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2009.04305.x.
- Liu, Y. and M. K. Sen, 2009, Numerical modeling of wave equation by truncated high-order finite difference method, Earthquake Science, 22, 205-213
- Ma, J, M. K. Sen, and X. Chen, 2009, Free surface multiple attenuation using inverse data processing in the coupled plane-wave domain: field data example, Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 28, SEG 79th Annual Meeting, Houston, TX.
- Ma, J. and M. K. Sen, X. Chen 2009, Multiple attenuation using inverse data processing in the coupled plane wave domain, Geophysics, 74(4), V75-V81
- Ma, J., M. K. Sen, and X. Chen, 2009, Multiple attenuation using inverse data processing in the plane wave domain, Chinese Journal of Geophysics (in Chinese with English abstract), 52(3), 808-816.
- Miah, K. H, and M. K. Sen, 2009, Grid dispersion minimization in Green’s tensor used in Scattering Integral inversion method, SEG annual meeting, Houston, TX.
- Pestana, R. and P. L. Stoffa,2009, Rapid expansion method (REM) for time-stepping in reverse time migration (RTM), Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 28, SEG 79th Annual Meeting, Houston, TX.
- Rajput, S., M. K. Sen, and S. Chopra, 2009, Seismic indicators of gas hydrates and free gas, Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 28, SEG 79th Annual Meeting, Houston, TX.
- Sen, M K., 2009, Estimation of properties of shallow sediments from multi-component ocean bottom seismometer data, Invited paper to be presented at the workshop on ‘multicomponent seismic data’ at the SEG annual meeting, Houston, TX
- Sen, M. K., and A. Pal, 2009, A reflectivity method for laterally varying media: homogeneous layers with curved interfaces, Geophysical Journal International,Volume 178, Issue 2, pages 792–812, August 2009, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2009.04172.x
- Sen, M. K., and N. Vedanti, 2009, Seismic Inversion tracks in-situ combustion: 4D seismic at the Balol field, India, Geophysics July-August 2009 v. 74 no. 4 p. B103-B112, doi: 10.1190/1.3129262
- Sena, A, M. K. Sen, P. L. Stoffa, R. Seif and L. Jin, 2009, Joint inversion of time-lapse seismic and production data using VFSA with Local Thermal Regulation and pilot point parameterizatios,Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 28, SEG 79th Annual Meeting, Houston, TX.
- Sena, A, P. L. Stoffa, M. K. Sen, and R. Seif, 2009, Assessing the value of time-lapse seismic data, in joint inversion for reservoir parameter estimation in an oil reservoir subjected to water flooding recovery: a synthetic example, SEG annual meeting, Houston, TX.
- Shahin, A., Stoffa, P. L., Tatham, R. H., and Sava, D., 2009, Multicomponent seismic time-lapse cross-plot and its applications, Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 28, SEG 79th Annual Meeting, Houston, TX, 1227-1231.
- Sil, S. and M. K. Sen, 2009, Azimuthal tau-p analysis in a weak orthorhombic medium, Journal of Seismic Exploration, 18, 81-91.
- Sil, S. and M. K. Sen, 2009, Seismic critical angle anisotropy analysis in tau-p domain, Geophysics,74(4), A53-A57, One of the 20 research articles with the most full-text downloads during month of July 2009
- Sil, S., and S. Srinivasan 2009, Stochastic simulation of fracture strikes using seismic anisotropy induced velocity anomalies, Exploration Geophysics, 40, 257-264.
- Sil, S., R. P. Srivastava, and M. K. Sen, 2009, Observation of azimuthal anisotropy on multicomponent Atlantis node seismic data, Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 28, SEG 79th Annual Meeting, Houston, TX..
- Smith, D. R., M. K. Sen and R.J. Ferguson, 2009, Optimized Regularization and Redatuming by Conjugate Gradients, EAGE meeting, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
- Spikes, K. T., 2009, Seismic-based estimates of net-to-gross using statistical classification and AVO attributes, Extended Abstracts of the 71st Annual Meeting of the EAGE.
- Spikes, K. T., 2009, Thickness estimates of heterogeneous reservoirs using seismic data, rock physics, and wavelet transforms, Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 28, SEG 79th Annual Meeting, Houston, TX., 1835–1838.
- Srinivasan, S. and M. K. Sen, 2009, Stochastic modeling of facies distribution in a carbonate reservoir in the Gulf of Mexico, Geohorizons, December, 54-67.
- Srivastava , R. P. and M. K. Sen, 2009, Stochastic pre-stack seismic inversion using fractal prior, Expanded Abstract, SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2009: 2516-2520, Houston TX

Srivastava, R. P. and M. K. Sen, 2009, Stochastic poststack seismic inversion using fractal based priors, Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, 6, 412-425. - Stoffa, P. L. and Pestana, R. Numerical solution of the acoustic wave equation by the rapid expansion method (REM) —A one step time evolution algorithm, Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 28, SEG 79th Annual Meeting, Houston, TX.
- Tatham, R. H., 2009, An applications oriented data base of interpretation of seismic P- and S-save data,, Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 28, 79th Annual International Meeting, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 4261-4265
- Valentin, D. A. and R. H. Tatham, 2009, Identifying Jurassic tight gas sands in the East Texas Basin with 3D-3C seismic data, Expanded Abstracts, 2010, Volume 29, SEG 80th Annual International Meeting, Denver, CO
- Vedanti, N. and M. K. Sen, 2009, Seismic inversion tracks in-situ combustion: a case study from Balolfield, India, Geophysics, 74(4), B103-B112, One of the 20 research articles with the most full-text downloads during the month of July 2009 and August 2009
- Yang Liu and M. K. Sen, 2009, A new time-space domain high-order finite-difference method for acoustic wave equation, SEG Beijing meeting, Beijing, China.
- Ye, F. and R. H. Tatham, M. K. Sen, 2009, Anticipated Seismic Response of the Bakken Formation, East Williston Basin, North Dakota, Expanded Abstracts, Vol. 29, 79th Annual Intern. Mtg, Soc. of Exploration Geophysicists

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## Relevant Publications (2008)

- Chu, C., P.L. Stoffa, 2008, A pseudospectral-finite difference hybrid approach for large-scale seismic modeling and RTM on parallel computers, SEG Annual meeting, Las Vegas.
- Chu, C., P.L. Stoffa, 2008, Parallel seismic modeling using the pseudospectral method on Marmousi2, 70 th EAGE Conference and Exhibition, Rome.
- Chu, C., P.L. Stoffa, 2008, Parallel seismic wave simulations on Lonestar and Ranger, 2nd Annual Scientific Software Days, The University of Texas at Austin.
- DeBabsabe, J., M. K. Sen and M. F. Wheeler, 2008, The Interior Penalty Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Elastic Wave Propagation: Grid Dispersion, Fast Track Paper, Geophysical J. International, 175, 83-93.
- DeBasabe, J., M. K. Sen, and M. F. Wheeler, 2008, Grid dispersion of discontinuous Galerkin method for elastic wave propagation, SEG Annual meeting, Las Vegas, NV.
- Dutta, U., M. K. Sen, N. N. Biswas, and Y. Zhang, Waveform Modeling of Earthquake Data for Delineating the Sedimentary Structure of the Anchorage Basin, Alaska, Proceeding of 14th. World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China, (Oct 12-17, 2008)
- Filina , Irina Y., Donald D. Blankenship, Malte Thomas. Valery V. Lukin, Valery N. Masolov, M. K. Sen, 2008, New 3D bathymetry and sediment distribution in Lake Vostok: implications for pre-glacial origin and numerical modeling of internal processes within the lake, Earth and Planetary Sciences letters, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2008.09.012.
- Gangopadhyay, A., and M. K. Sen, 2008, Seismicity in the northern Gulf of Mexico: A possible mechanism, Geophysical .l International, doi: 10.1111/j.1365- 246X.2008.03952.x
- Hong, T., and M. K. Sen, 2008, Joint Bayesian Inversion for Reservoir Characterization and Uncertainty Quantification, SEG Annual meeting, Las Vegas, NV.
- Hu, C. and P. Stoffa, 2008, Slowness driven Gaussian beam prestack depth migration for low-fold seismic data Geophysics, Submitted.
- Hu, C., P. Stoffa, and K. McIntosh, 2008, First arrival stochastic tomography: Automatic background velocity estimation using beam semblances and VFSA, Published in AGU Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L23307.
- Hu, C., P. Stoffa, and K. McIntosh, 2008, First arrival stochastic tomography: Automatic background velocity estimation using beam semblances and VFSA, SEG Annual meeting, Las Vegas.
- Jackson, C. S., M. K. Sen, G. Huerta, Y. Deng, and K. P. Bowman, 2008, Error reduction and convergence in climate prediction, J. of Climate, Vol. 21, No. 24, 6698–6709.
- Jackson, C.S., M. K. Sen, P.L. Stoffa, and G. Huerta, 2008, Data Directed Importance Sampling for Climate Model Parameter Uncertainty Estimation, Chapter 5 in Advance Computational Infrastructures for Parallel and Distributed Adaptive Applicatios (Parashar, M.)
- Jin, L., M. K. Sen, P. Stoffa, R. Seif, A. Sena, 2008, Stochastic inversion for reservoir properties using time-lapse seismic and well production data, 70th EAGE Conference and Exhibition, Rome.
- Jin, L., M. K. Sen, P.L. Stoffa, 2008, Data fusion: a possible way to reduce uncertainty in reservoir characterization, SEG Development and Production Forum, Austin.
- Jin, L., M. K. Sen, P.L. Stoffa, 2008, One-dimensional prestack seismic waveform inversion using Ensemble Kalman Filter, SEG Annual meeting, Las Vegas.
- Jin, L., M. K. Sen, P.L. Stoffa, R.K. Seif, 2008, Time-lapse seismic attributes analysis for waterflooded reservoir, J. Geophys Eng (5), 210-220.
- Ma, J., M. K. Sen, and X. Chen, 2008, Multiple Attenuation Using Inverse data processing in the planewave domain, SEG SEG Annual meeting, Las Vegas, NV.
- Sen, M. K., and N. Vedanti, 2008, Seismic Inversion tracks in-situ combustion: 4D seismic at the Balol field, India, paper no. SPE-116600-PP, Soc. of Petroleum Engineers
- Sen, M. K., and S. Srinivasan 2008, Reservoir modeling accounting for scale and precision of seismic data: application to a carbonate reservoir, Invited paper : Workshop on data integration, SEG Annual meeting, Las Vegas, NV.
- Sen, M. K., P.L. Stoffa, L. Jin, R. Seif, A. Sena, 2008, Stochastic inversion for reservoir parameters using timelapse seismic and well production data, Applied 4D Seismic: Reservoir Monitoring Model Updating, and Management – SPE/AAPR/SEG Applied Technology Workshop, Galveston.
- Sena, A.R., M. K. Sen, P.L. Stoffa, 2008, Modelling of ground penetrating radar data in stratified media using the reflectivity technique, J. Geophys. Eng, 5, 129-146.
- Shahin, A., P.L. Stoffa, R. H. Tatham, D. Sava, 2008, A statistical approach to quantify the detectability of the dynamic reservoir properties using multi-component time-lapse seismic attributes, SEG Development and Production Forum, Austin.
- Shahin, A., P.L. Stoffa, R. H. Tatham, D. Sava, 2008, Sensitivity analysis of multi-component seismic attributes to fluid content and pore pressure, SEG Annual meeting, Las Vegas.
- Shahin, A., P.L. Stoffa, R. H. Tatham, D. Sava, 2008, Sensitivity analysis of multi-component seismic attributes to fluid content and pore pressure, SEG Development and Production Forum, Austin.
- Shahin, A., P.L. Stoffa, R. H. Tatham, D. Sava, 2008, Uncertainty in rock physics modeling: Impact on seismic reservoir characterization and monitoring, SEG Development and Production Forum, Austin.
- Sil, S., and M. K. Sen, 2008, Azimuthal tau-p analysis in anisotropic media, Geophysical Journal Intl.,doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X. 2008. 0382.x.
- Sil, S., S. Sriivasan, M. K. Sen, Jaime J. Ríos López and Madain Moreno Vidal , 2008, Markov Bayes Simulation for structural uncertainty estimation, SEG Annual meeting, Las Vegas, NV.
- Stoffa, P.L., M. K. Sen, R.K. Seifoullaev, R.C. Pestana, 2008, Plane Wave Seismic Data: Parallel and AdaptiveStrategies for Velocity Analysis and Imaging.
- Villargan, A., G. Huerta, C. Jackson, and M. K. Sen, 2008, Parameter uncertainty estimation in climate models, Bayesian Analysis, 3(4), 823-850.
- Wood, W.T., W. S. Holbrook, P.L. Stoffa, 2008, Full waveform inversion of reflection seismic data for ocean temperature profiles, Geophys Res Lett, 35, L04608

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STOP

Past Research:

- Samik Sil, PhD May 2009 (Advisor: Mrinal K. Sen)

**TWO-WAY TRAVEL TIME ANALYSIS**Two-way traveltime (TWT) is one of the most important seismic attributes for reservoir characterization. Erroneous analysis of TWT can lead to incorrect estimates of velocity models resulting in improper structural interpretation of the subsurface. TWT analysis starts with the most fundamental step of seismic data processing, namely, Normal Moveout (NMO) correction. NMO correction is generally performed in the offset-time (X-t) domain, by fitting a hyperbolic curve to the observed traveltimes corresponding to each reflection event. The commonly used NMO equation is valid within small offset and does not consider anisotropy – an effect commonly observed in fractured media. The performance of NMO correction depends on the quality of the data in the prestack domain and the underlying geology. In the plane wave (Tau-p) domain, the estimation of layer parameters can be done using exact equation for delay-time free from the approximation errors present in the X-t domain. In this domain a layer striping approach can also be used to account for the presence of multiple anisotropic and isotropic layers.The primary goal of this thesis is to develop techniques for seismic data analysis that can be used for developing fractured reservoir models together with their uncertainties.

FOR SEISMIC RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

Main contributions of this research include:- Development of au-p domain NMO correction equation for VTI, HTI and orthorhombic media; a general equation is identi ed which reduces to VTI, HTI, elliptic anisotropy and isotropic media.
- Development of a critical angle re ectometry scheme in the Tau-p domain. This method analyzes critical slowness at each azimuth and relates it with the anisotropy parameters.
- Estimation of fracture attributes from reflection traveltime residuals for a reservoir from the Gulf of Mexico.
- Estimation of structural uncertainty in a Gulf of Mexico reservoir by combining traveltimes from seismic data and well log derived marker depths. We used a Markov-Bayes stochastic simulation to estimate structural uncertainty. Occurrence of signi cant uncertainty in several parts of the subsurface model may be attributed to using erroneous velocity model, presence of faults and fractures in the subsurface, and ignoring seismic anisotropy during data processing.

Fig 1: Anisotropic traveltime analysis in the au-p domain for an HTI

medium. Our developed method (red star) matches the exact

traveltime (green line) better than any other published method.Fig 2: Seismic critical angle re ectometry method in the au-p

domain. This method is easy to implement for critical angle analysis

and anisotropy detection (when multi azimuth data is used)Fig 3: Map of Structural uncertainty of a reservoir estimated in the time

domain (Traveltime uncertainty). Uncertainty is derived from standard

deviation of multiple realizations of the reservoir architecture.Fig 4: Stochastic fracture simulation using RMO analysis. RMO is due to

processing anisotropic data (Fracture induced anisotropy) using isotropic

model. The map shows fracture strike direction at di erent spatial locations.Jonas D. De Basabe, PhD May 2009 (Advisor: Mrinal K. Sen)

**HIGH-ORDER FINITE ELEMENT METHODS FOR SEISMIC WAVE PROPAGATION**Purely numerical methods based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) are becoming increasingly popular in seismic modeling for the propagation of acoustic and elastic waves in geophysical models. These methods offer a better control on the accuracy and more geometrical exibility than the finite difference methods that have been traditionally used for the generation of synthetic seismograms. However, the success of these methods has outpaced their analytic validation. The accuracy of the FEMs used for seismic wave propagation is unknown in most cases and therefore the simulation parameters in numerical experiments are determined by empirical rules. The focus here is on two methods that are particularly suited for seismic modeling: the Spectral Element Method (SEM) and the Interior-Penalty Discontinuous Galerkin Method (IP-DGM).

The goals of this research are to investigate the grid dispersion and stability of SEM and IP-DGM, to implement these methods and to apply them to subsurface models to obtain synthetic seismograms. In order to analyze the grid dispersion and stability, I use plane wave analysis to obtain a generalized eigenvalue problem. I show that the eigenvalues are related to the grid dispersion and that, with certain assumptions, the size of the eigenvalue problem can be reduced from the total number of degrees of freedom to one proportional to the number of degrees of freedom inside one element.

The grid dispersion results indicate that SEM of degree greater than 4 is isotropic and has a very low dispersion. Similar dispersion properties are observed for the symmetric formulation of IP-DGM of degree greater than 4 using nodal basis functions. The low dispersion of these methods allows for a sampling ratio of 4 nodes per wavelength to be used. On the other hand, the stability analysis shows that, in the elastic case, the size of the time step required in IP-DGM is approximately 6 times smaller than that of SEM. The results from the analysis are confirmed by numerical experiments performed using an implementation of these methods. The methods are tested using two benchmarks: Lamb’s problems and the SEG/EAGE salt dome model.

Fig1: Superconvergence of SEM with respect to the sampling ratio. The slop

e of each curve represent the convergence rate of the method for a given degree. Similar superconvergence behaviors are observed for FEM with a consistent mass matrix and the symmetric formulation of IP-DGM.Fig 2: Numerical results for Lamb’s problem. The higher-degree

methods exhibit less dispersion, for a xed sampling ratio, and closely

approximate the analytic solution.Fig 3: Fig 3: Numerical results for the SEG salt model